Git and GitHub Command Cheat Sheet

The essential Git commands every developer must know
The essential Git commands every developer must know

The essential Git commands every developer must know

This cheat sheet covers all of the Git commands I’ve covered in my Ultimate Git
Mastery blog.
✓ Creating snapshots
✓ Browsing history
✓ Branching & merging
✓ Collaboration using Git & GitHub
✓ Rewriting history

The essential Git commands every developer must know

Creating Snapshots‌

Initializing a repository

git init 

Staging files

git add file1.js 
# Stages a single file 
git add file1.js file2.js
# Stages multiple files 
git add *.js 
# Stages with a pattern
git add . 
# Stages the current directory and all its content

Viewing the status

git status 
# Full status
git status -s 
# Short status

Committing the staged files

git commit -m “Message” 
# Commits with a one-line message
git commit 
# Opens the default editor to type a long message

Skipping the staging area

git commit -am “Message”

Removing files

git rm file1.js 
# Removes from working directory and staging area 
git rm --cached file1.js 
# Removes from staging area only

Renaming or moving files

git mv file1.js file1.txt

Viewing the staged/unstaged changes

git diff 
# Shows unstaged changes
git diff --staged 
# Shows staged changes
git diff --cached 
# Same as the above

Viewing the history

git log 
# Full history
git log --oneline 
# Summary
git log --reverse 
# Lists the commits from the oldest to the newest

Viewing a commit

git show 921a2ff 
# Shows the given commit
git show HEAD 
# Shows the last commit
git show HEAD~2 
# Two steps before the last commit
git show HEAD:file.js 
# Shows the version of file.js stored in the last commit

Unstaging files (undoing git add)

git restore --staged file.js 
# Copies the last version of file.js from repo to index

Discarding local changes

git restore file.js 
# Copies file.js from index to working directory 
git restore file1.js file2.js 
# Restores multiple files in working directory
git restore . 
# Discards all local changes (except untracked files) 
git clean -fd 
# Removes all untracked files

Restoring an earlier version of a file

git restore --source=HEAD~2 file.js

Browsing History‌

The essential Git commands every developer must know

Viewing the history

git log --stat 
# Shows the list of modified files
git log --patch 
# Shows the actual changes (patches)

Filtering the history

git log -3 
# Shows the last 3 entries
git log --author=“Mosh”
git log --before=“2020-08-17”
git log --after=“one week ago”
git log --grep=“GUI” 
# Commits with “GUI” in their message
git log -S“GUI” 
# Commits with “GUI” in their patches 
git log hash1..hash2 
# Range of commits

git log hash1..hash2 
# Range of commits
git log file.txt 
# Commits that touched file.txt

Formatting the log output

git log --pretty=format:”%an committed %H”

Creating an alias

git config --global alias.lg “log --oneline"

Viewing a commit

git show HEAD~2
git show HEAD~2:file1.txt 
# Shows the version of file stored in this commit

Comparing commits

git diff HEAD~2 HEAD 
# Shows the changes between two commits 
git diff HEAD~2 HEAD file.txt 
# Changes to file.txt only

Checking out a commit

git checkout dad47ed 
# Checks out the given commit 
git checkout master
# Checks out the master branch

Finding a bad commit

git bisect start
git bisect bad 
# Marks the current commit as a bad commit 
git bisect good ca49180 
# Marks the given commit as a good commit 
git bisect reset 
# Terminates the bisect session

Finding contributors

git shortlog

Viewing the history of a file

git log file.txt 
# Shows the commits that touched file.txt
git log --stat file.txt 
# Shows statistics (the number of changes) for file.txt 
git log --patch file.txt 
# Shows the patches (changes) applied to file.txt

Finding the author of lines

git blame file.txt 
# Shows the author of each line in file.txt

Tagging

git tag v1.0 
# Tags the last commit as v1.0 
git tag v1.0 5e7a828 
# Tags an earlier commit
git tag # Lists all the tags
git tag -d v1.0 # Deletes the given tag

Branching & Merging‌

The essential Git commands every developer must know

Managing branches

git branch bugfix 
# Creates a new branch called bugfix 
git checkout bugfix 
# Switches to the bugfix branch
git switch bugfix 
# Same as the above 
git switch -C bugfix 
# Creates and switches
git branch -d bugfix 
# Deletes the bugfix branch

Comparing branches

git log master..bugfix 
# Lists the commits in the bugfix branch not in master 
git diff master..bugfix 
# Shows the summary of changes

Stashing

git stash push -m “New tax rules” 
# Creates a new stash 
git stash list 
# Lists all the stashes
git stash show [email protected]{1} 
# Shows the given stash
git stash show 1 
# shortcut for [email protected]{1}
git stash apply 1 
# Applies the given stash to the working dir
git stash drop 1 
# Deletes the given stash
git stash clear 
# Deletes all the stashes

Merging

git merge bugfix 
# Merges the bugfix branch into the current branch 
git merge --no-ff bugfix 
# Creates a merge commit even if FF is possible
git merge --squash bugfix 
# Performs a squash merge
git merge --abort 
# Aborts the merge

Viewing the merged branches

git branch --merged 
# Shows the merged branches 
git branch --no-merged 
# Shows the unmerged branches

Rebasing

git rebase master 
# Changes the base of the current branch

Cherry picking

git cherry-pick dad47ed 
# Applies the given commit on the current branch

Collaboration‌

The essential Git commands every developer must know

Cloning a repository

git clone url

Syncing with remotes

git fetch origin master 
# Fetches master from origin 
git fetch origin 
# Fetches all objects from origin
git fetch 
# Shortcut for “git fetch origin”
git fetch 
# Shortcut for “git fetch origin”
git pull 
# Fetch + merge
git push origin master 
# Pushes master to origin
git push 
# Shortcut for “git push origin master”

Sharing tags

git push origin v1.0 
# Pushes tag v1.0 to origin 
git push origin —delete v1.0

Sharing branches

git branch -r 
# Shows remote tracking branches
git branch -vv 
# Shows local & remote tracking branches 
git push -u origin bugfix 
# Pushes bugfix to origin

git push -d origin bugfix 
# Removes bugfix from origin

Managing remotes

git remote 
# Shows remote repos

git remote add upstream url 
# Adds a new remote called upstream 
git remote rm upstream 
# Remotes upstream

Rewriting History‌

The essential Git commands every developer must know

Undoing commits

git reset --soft HEAD^ 
# Removes the last commit, keeps changed staged 
git reset --mixed HEAD^ 
# Unstages the changes as well
git reset --hard HEAD^ 
# Discards local changes

Reverting commits

git revert 72856ea 
# Reverts the given commit

git revert HEAD~3.. 
# Reverts the last three commits 
git revert --no-commit HEAD~3..

Recovering lost commits

git reflog 
# Shows the history of HEAD
git reflog show bugfix 
# Shows the history of bugfix pointer

Amending the last commit

git commit --amend

Interactive rebasing

git rebase -i HEAD~5

রিসোর্স সমুহ:

  1.  official Git project site 
  2.  ProGit book
  3.  Git command list
  4. on-demand training courses
  5. on-demand training courses
  6. online Git course
  7. git-cheat-sheet-education (github.com)
  8. Git cheat sheet | Atlassian Git Tutorial

What is git ?

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